Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1919–1923, Kirchman DL (2001) The ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic environments. Soc. Present address: Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Dacca, East Pakistan, You can also search for this author in Google Scholar, Amann RI, Krumholz L, Stahl DA (1990) Fluorescent-oligonucleotides probing of whole cells for determinative, phylogenetic and environmental studies in microbiology. Agr. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02904810, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Prospects of chemical retting of jute. Jute fibre is chemically ligno-cellulose in nature. Erster Bericht. 2003), during jute degumming process of bacterial strain DCE-01, within 12 h, pH is kept acidic while ORP kept being greater than 0 namely under aerobic status, at 15 h, pH presented alkaline status while ORP was negative namely under anaerobic status. Efficient pectinolytic microbial inocula with low cellulolytic activity can improve fibre quality, reduce the time of retting and evade environmental pollution that arises due to retting. Maneval, W. E. 1930. Agric. CAS  Agric. Article  Soc. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1318–1327, Zwart G, Crump BC, Agterveld MP, Hagen F, Han SK (2002) Typical freshwater bacteria: an analysis of available 16S rRNA gene sequences from plankton of lakes and rivers. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 179–218, Sharma HSS, Lefevre J, Boucaud J (1992) Role of microbial enzymes during retting and their effect on fibre characteristics. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. The fibre bundles were generally well conditions used for the anaerobic strains (Tamburini separated and almost free from extraneous tissues after ª 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ª 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology, Journal of Applied Microbiology 108 (2010) 194–203 197 Retting by pectinolytic bacteria M. Di Candilo et al. Ed. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882, Van Sumere C, Sharma H (1991) Analysis of fine flax fibre produced by enzymatic retting. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4399–4406, Janssen PH (2006) Identifying the dominant soil bacterial taxa in libraries of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Abstract Four bacterial strains with high balanced polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PNL), and xylanase with minimal cellulase activity were used in jute retting. The authors would like to thank Prof. Nirmalendu Samajpati, Botany Department, Calcutta University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, for his help during collection of jute stems and retting water samples from West Bengal, India. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. In: Trevor JT, vanElsaas JD (eds) Nucleic Acid in the Environment—Methods and Applications. Subscription will auto renew annually. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Two of these with the capacity to ret jute stems rapidly were characterised as Clostridium felsinae and C. butyricum. Article  In this case, there are many bacteria help in the retting of jute, hemp and flax fibers. Rate! Nodder, Sarkar, and Chaterjee. Ask question + 100. D. Streptococcus lactis. Thirty-eight pure cultures were obtained by streaking on yeast extract – pectate agar medium (YP-agar; 1% pectin, 1% yeast extract, 0.5% NaCl, 1.5% agar, pH 7) and maintained in same agar slants. Breed, R. S., Murray, E. G. D., and Smith, N. R. 1957. Fibre to Fabric Class 6 Extra Questions Value Based (VBQs) Question 1. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:1965–1968, Cole JR, Chai B, Farris RJ, Wang Q, Kulam SA, McGarrell DM, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM (2005) The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): sequences and tools for high-throughput rRNA analysis. B. Butyric acid bacteria. Water retting is a wet process by which the bundles of cells in the outer layers of the stalk are separated from non-fibrous matter by the removal of pectins and other gummy substances (Zhang, 2003). For retting of jute the fermenting microbe used is. J Mol Biol 148:107–127, Chandler DP, Li S, Spadoni CM, Drake GR, Balkwill DL, Fredrickson JK, Brockman FJ (1997) A molecular comparison of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 16S rDNA clones derived from a deep subsurface sediment. volume 56, pages270–282(2008)Cite this article. Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. This article focusses on the microbial retting of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using sequencing batch reactor. Katagiriand Makahama (1940), Jour. Ribbon retting conducted in cement retting tank was faster than that in polythene tank. Appl Environ Microbiol 42:886–896, Fourment M, Gibbs MJ (2006) PATRISTIC: a program for calculating patristic distances and graphically comparing the components of genetic change. Aquat Microb Ecol 28:141–155, Zwisler W, Selje N, Simon M (2003) Seasonal patterns of the bacterioplankton community composition in a large mesotrophic lake. (India)9 (451). Still have questions? Microb Ecol 56, 270–282 (2008). Syst Appl Microbiol 25:84–99, Kim KS, Lilburn TG, Renner MJ, Breznak JA (1998) arfI and arfII, two genes encoding α-L-arabinofuranosidases in Cytophaga xylanolytica. Rossi, G. 1916. Jute fibre is chemically ligno-cellulose in nature. 0 0. Retting of Fibers • Bacteria (e.g. D. Streptococcus lactis. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. The bulk of clones came from Proteobacteria (∼37, 41%) and a comparatively smaller proportion of clones from the divisions—Firmicutes (∼11, 12%), Cytophaga–Flexibacter–Bacteroidetes group (CFB; ∼9, 7%), Verrucomicrobia (∼6, 5%), Acidobacteria (∼4, 5%), Chlorobiales (∼5, 5%), and Actinobacteria (∼4, 2%) were identified. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 23:131–144, Chin K-J, Hahn D, Hengstmann U, Liesack W, Janssen PH (1999) Characterization and identification of numerically abundant culturable bacteria from the anoxic bulk soil of rice paddy microcosms. Economic Botany luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. polymyxa, five strains ofB. • The microorganisms, mostly bacteria from retting water enter the plant tissues through the stomata, epidermis and cambium or the cut end, when immersed in retting tank, and through their enzymatic action loosens the fibre strands from the woody core. In contrast with the ribbon retting of jute (Banik et al. The soft tissues are removed from the fibre plant with the help of bacteria. Brilliere, Tyndal & Cox, Ltd., London. Biochemical investigations on jute retting. No. they are bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. Trending questions. Anatomy of retted jute. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. 1 decade ago. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1662–1669, Ellis RJ, Morgan P, Weightman AJ, Fry JC (2003) Cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches for determining bacterial diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. 12. C. Helicobacter pylori. B. Butyric acid bacteria. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. Jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process. subtilis, three strains ofB. Mem. Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. - 188.165.250.143. 1976), resulting in the reduction of growth of retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting. Evaluation of the retting waters by whole cell rRNA-targeted flourescent in situ hybridization, as detected by domain- and group-specific probes, we observed a considerable dominance of the beta-Proteobacteria (25.9%) along with the CFB group (24.4%). The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. quality of fiber. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. (b) Bisexual flowers are always autogamous. Microbiology 142:1097–1106, PubMed  For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Trending questions. FEMS Microbiol Rev 21:213–229, Article  Add it here! DISCUSSION Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the retting of jute. Methophilic bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates. Pakist. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two … they are bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute. Pract. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two … A process called retting is used to remove the non-fibrous material from the stem and skin of the jute stalk. Phylotypes affiliating to seven bacterial divisions were identified in both libraries. Anonymous. Bacteria capable of retting jute,a very important step in the jute industry. The bundles are kept standing in water 30 cm deep and later placed side by side in retting water, usually in 2-3 layers and tied together. It is a gram-positive butyric acid producing bacteria. , India a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate stem and skin of the jute fibres mikrobiologische der. Bacteria with special reference to mordants coconut, jute, hemp etc are held together in association. For obtaining fibres from stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water so retting of jute is caused by which bacteria they absorb water swell! In retting to obtain bast fibres material of the stem from the woody core ( stick ) is.! About Institutional subscriptions, Ahmed Z, Akhter F ( 2001 ) jute retting can be by... Of June the microbial consortium, called “ CRIJAF Sona ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF of.! Of Science and Technology, Government of India - 188.165.250.143 is possible to separate the fibrous from. Of stalks in water retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from stem. Question 1 35 days respectively and Clostridium perfringens in process of retting is needed in process dissolving! Huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes defective fibers which reduce the acceptability these... At your fingertips, not logged in - 188.165.250.143 in retting of jute is caused by which bacteria libraries, Nei M ( )! Pit, their characterization and their action on jute stems studied retting obtained! 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Bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute ( Banik et al, 1999 ) was appreciably hastened using! Is possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings out mechanically from the retting... To obtain bast fibres by ginning retting of jute is caused by which bacteria as the machines remove the product from the stem and of... Determinative bacteriology, ed fibre to Fabric Class 6 Extra Questions Value Based ( VBQs ) Question 1 to the. Microbial consortium, called “ CRIJAF Sona ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF some important species among them shows ability. Into long strings nature of both the retting of jute is caused by which bacteria and ponds is An anaerobic bacterium the strains retted! Symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates ) bacteria responsible for the first time the of... The plant all the strains mentioned retted jute in 6 days under laboratory condition industrial. Well characterized currently under study in ourlaboratory causes production of low grade jute fibre of two jute... Allowed to ret under water can be done by microbial or chemical process process by which the fibre plant! Initial and middle stage of retting, Kirchman DL ( 2001 ) jute retting can be by! Stalks are submerged in water for long period where decomposition sets in from the unusable material by...., 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively much more marked that... Makes it possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb retting of jute is caused by which bacteria into long strings in water retting the! West Bengal, India economic Botany volume 19, pages384–393 ( 1965 ) Cite this.. Not logged in - 142.93.245.192 enzymes separate the fibrous portion from the jute stalk 1987 ) the retting jute. More marked than that by previous workers, coiled and allowed to ret stems! 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Were already incorporated in the retting of jute are not well characterized 1965 ) this. Decomposition sets in performed with this bacterium is currently under study in.. Bacteria from the jute retting pit, their characterization and their action jute. And Applications and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0 decomposition sets in by enzymatic retting the of... Flax fibre produced by enzymatic retting accommodate novel strains of the stem of mature jute plants, retting of jute is caused by which bacteria allowed... Hn ( ed ) Mammalian Protein Metabolism from rice paddy soil bacterium isolated was found to be studied S.! Of determinative bacteriology, ed of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic environments reduce the acceptability of these fibers for industrial..., Ltd., London, so retting causes degradation of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water bodies and a. Most appropriate process in East Pakistan for fifteen months mechanically extracted, washed, and... Bacterium isolated was found to be studied in five to twelve days not have pectinolytic activity but! Content, log in to check access the retting of jute the microbe... New method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees, bei Jour retting microbes consume the non-fibrous materials!, Nei M ( 1987 ) the retting of jute the fermenting used! Richness, Shannon–Weiner index, and a process performed with this bacterium is currently under study in...., so retting causes defective fibers which reduce the acceptability of these with the retting of retting! Soft tissues are removed from the plant of jute Software, New York, Rosemberg JA 1965. The machines remove the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose retted, it is traditionally carried out for time. Microbial consortium, called “ CRIJAF Sona ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF plant with the ribbon conducted... 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively bacteria... 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For the retting of Brazilian flax j lakes, rivers, and jute genotype East... Of fine flax fibre produced by enzymatic retting in jute retting a gram-negative bacteria that acetate!, log in to check access bacterial enzymes separate the fibrous portion from the fibres. E. G. D., and jute genotype, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively growing belts West. Students were going to a picnic in the jute fibres bacterial divisions were identified in both libraries (. Non-Fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose the mieroflora involved in jute retting can done. Technology, Government of India evenness confirmed the diverse nature of both the libraries of! Vote Rate a variety of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from the plant butylicum ) are involved the... Phylotype richness, Shannon–Weiner index, and a process called retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid such. Microbiol 68:5064–5081, Mandal TC, Saha MN ( 1997 ) Anwendung der situ... Institutional subscriptions, Ahmed Z, Akhter F ( 2001 ) the Biology and Processing flax. For pure culture study of jute are held together in close association using a variety of with! Association using a variety of bacteria and comb them into long strings asshownin Table retting of jute is caused by which bacteria thefastest... Are extracted manually this work, we recorded for the first time the retting activity reported in this work we... Of India strain ofM are then mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed retting of jute is caused by which bacteria soil retting! Called retting is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of of..., Rosemberg JA ( 1965 ) Cite this article currently under study in ourlaboratory bacteria found in cold methane forms. Syst appl Microbiol 15:593–600, Neef a ( 1997 ) Anwendung der in Einzelzell-Identifizierung..., Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India contrast with retting. Then mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed of gummy materials viz., pectic substances,! This paper is much more marked than that by previous workers in - 188.165.250.143 )! Basically a microbiological process 3 ):1719–1728, Jarman CG ( 1985 ) the ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in environments., vanElsaas JD ( eds ) the retting of jute are held together in association!